Saturday, July 27, 2013

A Global Bond

Skyfall (2012) by Stijn Vogels, on Flickr

Six degrees of separation.

Number six in the previous post (on Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired globes), is the Glencoe Globe. It turns out there are six degrees of connection between 'Glencoe' and 'globe'. And one connection is James Bond.

How is a globe related to James Bond? Here are the ties that bond – James Bond – to globes.

Glencoe to Skyfall

Glencoe is the name of an upscale village in Illinois where, in 1911, Frank Lloyd Wright designed a large brick pedestal to be used at Glencoe's Booth Park. This pedestal (or at least Wright's house detailing styles for the first decade of the 20th-century) was the inspiration for world-famous globe maker Replogle's 'Glencoe Globe'.

Glencoe Globe 12-inch
Glencoe Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

Skyfall is the twenty-third (and latest, as of this writing) James Bond film. In the movie, Skyfall Lodge was located at Glencoe, Scotland.

Skyfall to Bond

James Bond was born at Skyfall Lodge, in 1921 (according to Bond scholar John Griswold) – ten years after Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Glencoe, Illinois pedestal which, later, became the inspiration for the Glencoe Globe.

Bond to Vickers

James Bond's parents were Andrew Bond and Monique Delacroix (of the French-speaking Vaud Canton in Switzerland). Andrew Bond worked as a representative of the Vickers, Sons & Maxim armaments company during and after the first world war.

Another company, also with Vickers in its name, prominently displayed globes in their business. Vickers Petroleum Company was a Kansas-based petroleum refiner and marketer. As such, they had gas pumps all over the American Midwest. They were known for "discount gas prices and no frills."

Vickers Petroleum Company

Gas pumps in the 1920s (the decade when James Bond was born) up to the 1950s, had 'globes' – actually illuminated glass signs on top of gasoline pumps that proudly showed the company logo. In those days, gasoline stations were poorly lit and the glass globes acted as beacon for motorists so they would know they're near a gasoline station.

Here is an example of a Vickers gas pump globe:
Vickers Gasoline gas globe
Vickers gasoline gas globe (at LiveAuctioneers).
Of course this is not the kind of globe we're concerned with but it connects Vickers to globes. Now, for the world globe:

Vickers to France

By 1911 (the year Frank Lloyd Wright designed the brick pedestal at Glencoe, IL), Andrew Bond's employers, Vickers, Sons & Maxim, changed its name to Vickers Ltd, with the formation of its aircraft division.

As a representative of the Vickers armaments company, Andrew frequently traveled across Europe, taking his family along with him. This resulted in James being fluent in German, aside from his mother's native French. The Bond couple met their end in a mountain climbing accident in the Aiguilles Rouges (Red Peaks) of France. James was 11 at the time.

France to Globe

As a frequent traveler Andrew Bond would have been the type of gentleman who had a globe in his study. Indeed a globe is shown in a scene of Skyfall, when James returns to Skyfall Lodge with M to set a trap for the villain, Raoul Silva. It's on a desk in what appears to be the study:
19th century French Globe at Skyfall (movie)
Antique globe at the Skyfall Lodge (1:48:23)
The closest match to this globe style I could find on the Web is this 19th century French globe that was posted at Pinterest.
19th century French Globe
Antique French globe linking to Paris Hotel Boutique online store but the link takes you to the home page.

An even older French globe is the 18th century Vaugondy Globe, of the Robert de Vaugondy father and son tandem, a replica of which is available at Ultimate Globes.

That a French globe is at Glencoe takes us back to the Glencoe Globe, which completes the circle.

Other amusements that can be had with a globe and James Bond is finding out if this cliche is true: that James Bond always visits three continents in his movies. In Skyfall, James was first at Istanbul (Between Europe and Asia), then at a tropical island (probably French Polynesia), then Macau (Asia), and Scotland (off the European continent) – that's at least three continents (or world cultures). Go get a globe and have fun.

Thursday, July 25, 2013

Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired Globes

by Trey Thomas

Last week we featured eleven ships that appeared in Replogle globes. Today we give you another list of eleven: Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired globes.

First, a backgrounder

So much has been written about Frank Lloyd Wright that I find it hard where to begin. He is considered a superstar by those in the architecture and interior design business that there is a considerable body of writing (even film) devoted to him and his work. No wonder why his name has been made into a Replogle globe series, the Frank Lloyd Wright Collection.

Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture is called by many as organic. Not that he made buildings looking like plants and animals (although he took inspiration from nature – like the nautilus and spiderweb inspired Guggenheim Museum ), but that his buildings were built, from the ground up, to consider the effect of, blend with, and grow from the nature of the site and a building's function. As a result, everything, from the foundations to the furnishings, were designed as parts of a whole.

Let the Fawcett Ranch House (on the market in 2009) be an example.

Here then, is the list of globes inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright's designs – many of them based on drawings found in Frank Lloyd Wright's archives. Please click on the links to see their full descriptions.

1. Wright Globe

wright globe
Wright Globe 16-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Floor Standing

This 38-inch high floor standing globe (the sphere is 16 inches across) is based on a concept for an unnamed client who commissioned Wright to design a Prairie Style home in the early 1900s. The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation archives drawing, on which this globe is based, simply contains Wright's handwritten note: "Something like this."

Perhaps the most famous Prairie Home designed by Wright is the Robie House (1910) at Hyde Park, Chicago. It is designated a National Historic Landmark since 1963.
Robie House, Hyde Park, Chicago by lmgadelha, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License  by  lmgadelha 

Here's the fireplace area. Guess which detail the Wright Globe is inspired by. ;-)

2. Hexhedra Globe

Hexhedra Globe 12-inch
Hexhedra Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

This 12-inch wide, 17.3-inch tall tabletop globe is said to be based on drawings for a hassock (hard cushion) designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for the Malcolm Wiley House at Minneapolis, Minnesota. This house is considered a transition between Wright's earlier Prairie houses and the later Usonian (see next entry) and is considered his "most significant" design of the Depression years. We have no pictures of that hassock and the house itself is private and undergoing restoration (it was bought in a dilapidated state by the Sikora family in 2002). But, look at the entry for the Usonian (next) and you'll see where the hexagonal influence came from: Wright himself.
WilleyHouse 002
By Elkman (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

3. Usonian Globe

Usonian Globe 12-inch
Usonian Globe Frank Lloyd Wright

The 18-inch tall (sphere is 12 inches wide) Usonian Desk Globe is based on Frank Lloyd Wright's Simplified Prairie Architecture style of the same name. Some say 'Usonia' stands for 'United States of North America', attributed by Frank Lloyd Wright to Samuel Butler:
"Samuel Butler fitted us with a good name. He called us Usonians, and our Nation of combined States, Usonia. Why not use the name?"
He probably misattributed the term, as its earliest published use comes from James Duff Law.

Wright built more than a hundred Usonians, but the furniture designs on which this globe was based did not contain any notes on what home they were assigned to, but here's a sample Usonian home, the Kentuck Knob (Hagan House, built 1953-56), at Dunbar, PA:

Kentuck Knob, Dunbar, PA (entrance)

Kentuck Knob, Dunbar, PA (garden side)

And here are details from the back eaves. Looks like the base of the globe eh?

4. Leerdam Vase Globe

Leerdam Vase Globe 12-inch
Leerdam Vase 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Globe
The 12-inch diameter Leerdam Vase Globe, especially its pedestal, draws inspiration from the Leerdam collection.

In 1929, Frank Lloyd Wright received a design commission from P.M. Cochius, then director of the Leerdam Glasfabrik Company of the Netherlands as part of the company's initiative of inviting well-known architects and designers to create contemporary houseware designs based on forms found in nature. Frank Lloyd Wright's design was for a line of glassware, dinnerware, vases and candlesticks. He came up with 33 designs based on hexagonal or octagonal shapes. Unfortunately, his designs (especially for the vases) were so advanced that it was impossible to execute them faithfully with the existing production methods available at the time.

Wright named the dinnerware set Hemerocallis, the Daylily.

Since then, production companies have attempted to interpret the Leerdam designs based on the original drawings, but no one has yet been able to produce the collection in its entirety.

Here are some of interpretations (note Frank Lloyd Wright's seal ):
Leerdam Blue Taliesin Vase
Blue Taliesin Vase
Leerdam Green Pinnacle Vase
Green Pinnacle Vase
Frank Lloyd Wright Leerdam Vase Green
Green Leerdam Vase

5. Four Square I Globe

Four Square Globe 12-inch
Four Square I Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

The Four Square I is a 20-inch high, 12-inch wide tabletop globe, an adaptation of Wright's 1950s drawings of wooden vases (from the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Archives). "Four Square" is also one of Wright's furniture lines (along with "The Honeycomb," "The Burberry," and the "Taliesin Line") designed for Heritage-Henredon Furniture Industries of Morganton, NC in the mid-1950s .

Wright's Heritage-Henredon vases (1955), while simpler, also show the tendency to narrow down in steps toward the base:
Heritage-Henredon Four Square Vase
Four Square Heritage-Henredon Vase

6. Glencoe Globe

Glencoe Globe 12-inch
Glencoe Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

Another 20-inch tall, 12-inch wide globe, the Glencoe's pedestal is adapted from Wright's 1911 designs for a large brick pedestal for Booth Park at Glencoe, IL. I didn't find pictures of the actual pedestal at Glencoe, nor of Booth Park itself. However since Illinois, particularly Oak Park, contains "the largest concentration of Frank Lloyd Wright buildings in the world" (he spent the first 20 years of his career there), one can see traces of this globe's inspiration in several Oak Park houses, even earlier ones.

Take for example this detail of the Thomas Gail House of 1892:
Thomas Gail House (detail)
Detail from photo by IvoShandor (Own work) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC-BY-2.5], via Wikimedia Commons

7. Beth Sholom Globe
Beth Sholom Globe 12-inch
Beth Sholom Globe 12-inch Illuminated Frank Lloyd Wright

On its base, the 12-inch wide Beth Sholom illuminated globe stands at 16 inches. It is named after the Beth Sholom Synagogue at Elkins Park, Pennsylvania.
Beth Sholom Synagogue (with National Historic marker)
By Peetlesnumber1 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1953, the influence of this synagogue on the Beth Sholom globe is best seen on the side:
Beth Sholom Synagogue (side view)
By Peetlesnumber1 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Like the Beth Sholom Globe, the Beth Sholom (House of Peace) synagogue also shines at night, glowing warmly through its fiberglass upper structure, aptly described by Wright as a "travelling Mount Sinai of Light," although it looks more like Mount Zion, the shining heavenly mountain – the axis mundi or world tree in other cultures, on which so many pagodas, temples, obelisks and pyramids are based.
Beth Sholom Synagogue (Northeast view, night)
from Gavriel D. Rosenfeld's article (photo: Balthazar Korab Ltd)

8. Hexagon Globe

Hexagon Globe 12-inch
Hexagon Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

This 12-inch wide globe stands 19.8-inches high on its metal base. This design is based on the hexagon-themed line of furniture Wright drew to go with his Price Tower for the H.C. Price Company in Bartlesville Oklahoma.
Price Tower (Frank Lloyd Wright design)
Uploaded by Emersonbiggins85 [CC-BY-SA-3.0, GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], from Wikimedia Commons

9. San Marcos Globe

San Marcos Globe 12-inch
San Marcos Globe 12-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Tabletop

This 12-inch wide sphere stands at 22 inches on its base. This is based on the designs for a small accent table done by Wright for the Dining Pavilion of the unrealized San Marcos in the Desert Project at Chandler, Arizona (1928-1929).
San Marcos in the Desert (Dining Pavilion inside perspective drawing)
From San Marcos in the Desert page, Library of Congress

The small planter (middle right) of this picture (no higher resolution) looks similar to the San Marcos Globe's base.
San Marcos in the Desert (Dining Pavilion inside section drawing)
From San Marcos in the Desert page, Library of Congress

10. Barrel Globe

Barrel Globe 16-inch
Barrel Globe Frank Lloyd Wright

Take Frank Lloyd Wright's famous 1904 Barrel Chair, remove the seat, and change the back-rest to accommodate an antique globe and you get the Barrel Globe. This floor globe is 16 inches wide and 39 inches tall.
Barrel Chair Frank Lloyd Wright 1904
from the Frank Lloyd Wright Blog

Here's a 1937 reworking of the Barrel Chair. The flaring and other subtle changes in form have been reduced and simplified so that it's closer to the Barrel Globe in its lines:
Barrel Chair Frank Lloyd Wright 1937
from Chairs by Famous Architects

11. Obelisk Globe

Obelisk Globe 16-inch
Obelisk Globe 16-inch Frank Lloyd Wright Floor Standing

Along with the Leerdam Vase Globe, the Obelisk Floor Globe is inspired by the 1929 Leerdam Glassfabrik commissioned designs. It is 16 inches across and 38 inches high.

There you go. If you have own a Frank Lloyd Wright globe, know that what you have is inspired by one of the last century's greatest architectural minds.

Friday, July 19, 2013

Ships on Globes

by Trey Thomas

Replogle, the world's leading globe manufacturer (and maker of the Landen Floor Globe exclusive to Ultimate Globes), has always included monochrome drawings of ships of exploration in their antique-style globes.

Here are the ships that have appeared so far in Replogle globes. If you have a world globe, join in and trace their voyages.

1. Chinese Junk (200 A.D.)

Probably the heyday of the Chinese Junk was during the days of the Muslim-born Ming eunuch admiral Zheng He.
Admiral Zheng He by hathu-, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License  by  hathu- 

From 1405 to 1433, Zheng He's treasure fleet of junks made seven voyages in the seas of Southeast Asia, India, Northeastern Africa and Arabia. Here's a picture of Zheng He's route (click to enlarge):
(from Wikipedia)
And what a treasure fleet it was. On his first voyage, he had 28,000 crewmen aboard 317 ships.
17th-century depiction of Zheng He's ships (from Wikipedia)
Here's a model of one of these treasure ships, along with a model of Christopher Columbus' Santa Maria and clipper Cutty Sark for comparison:
Model of 15th century Ming Treasure Ship by mharrsch, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License  by  mharrsch 

Here's another depiction of a treasure ship, with the treasures it contained:

2. Arab Dhow (500 A.D.)

The dhow is either of Arab or Indian origin. Once the primary trading vessels in the Indian Ocean coasts (including the Red Sea), the dhows' distinctive sail and silhouette evokes the adventures of Sinbad the Sailor.

Dhow Traffic 1 by Shaun D Metcalfe, on Flickr

D6Z_dhow_0706 by Mike LaB, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic License  by  Mike LaB 

Indian Ocean. The dhow was used in the coasts of East Africa, Arabia and India.
From the Wikipedia article

3. Polynesian Canoe (700 A.D.)

A development of Southeast Asian outrigger canoes, the Polynesian canoe (aided by Polynesian navigation methods) helped populate the Polynesian Triangle.
Polynesian Triangle (image from Wikipedia)

Polynesian canoes for seafaring are typically double-hulled.
Modern replica of a Polynesian canoe at Honolulu harbor (CC by Stan Shebs on Wikipedia)

Hawaiian priests traveling across Kealakekua Bay for first contact rituals (from Wikipedia)

Hokule`a, a Hawaiian wa'a kaulua or voyaging canoe, sailing off Honolulu, photo taken from onboard the Chinese junk Princess Taiping, January 22, 2009
The most popular descendant of the great Polynesian sea-faring canoes today is the catamaran (a word imported from Tamil).

Mormon-owned Polynesian Cultural Center in Oahu, Hawaii, has the Polynesian canoe as its logo:
(image from PCC's Wikipedia entry page)

4. Viking Longship (838-840 A.D.)

"From the fury of the Northmen, deliver us, o Lord" went the apocryphal medieval plea for deliverance against the Norsemen of the Viking Age who raided, traded, and flourished between the late 8th to the 11th centuries.
The Gokstad Viking shipViking Ship MuseumOslo, Norway. (from WIkipedia)

The Oseberg ship prow, Viking Ship MuseumOslo, Norway. (from Wikipedia)
The Vikings were wide-ranging seafarers, founding kingdoms, serving as mercenaries and traders, pirating, pillaging and robbing along the way.
Viking Voyages and Territories (from Wikipedia)
 It was a terrible time for their victims.
Viking Ship Museum by TXMagpie, on Flickr
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License  by  TXMagpie 

longship 1 by chatirygirl, on Flickr
Viking longship burning at the end of Edinburgh's Torchlight Procession
Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 2.0 Generic License  by  chatirygirl 

5. Pinta, Niña, Santa Maria 1492-1493

It is generally agreed Christopher Columbus "discovered" the Americas for European conquest. The Santa Maria, Columbus' flagship was a carrack (the other two were caravels) sponsored by the monarchs of Spain (Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile).
Ship model at Fort San CristóbalSan Juan, Puerto Rico (image from Wikipedia)

However, the Americas were not named for Columbus, the honor instead going to Italian Amerigo Vespucci. Some say it was because Vespucci's accounts of his travels outsold Columbus' three to one (helped by the loving details of the Vespucci crew's sexy exploits with the free-spirited Caribbean women).
Christopher Columbus

Voyages of Columbus

6. São Gabriel 1497-1499

The carrack São Gabriel was the flagship of Portuguese Vasco da Gama's first voyage (with another carrack São Rafael, Berrio (a caravel), and an unnamed storage ship.

1558 depiction. Clockwise (top to bottom): São Rafael, São Gabriel, and Bérrio (from Wikipedia)

Vasco da Gama is credited with directly sailing to India from Europe. But he is also known for atrocities to non-Europeans which inspired the movie, Urumi.

The Portuguese India Run (from Wikipedia)

7. Victoria 1519-1522

A carrack of Ferdinand Magellan, another Portuguese, whose 1519-1522 fleet expedition (sponsored by Spain's King Charles I) completed the first known (westward) circumnavigation of the globe (Magellan was killed in the island of Mactan in 1521). The Victoria was the only ship of Magellan's fleet of five to return back to Spain, with 18 men on board.

1590 depiction of the Victoria (from Wikipedia)

Ferdinand Magellan

Circumnavigation of the globe 1519-1522 (from Wikipedia)

8. Heemskeerk 1642-1643

The Heemskeerk (also spelled Heemskerck or Heemskirk), a yacht, is not very well known, but it was one of two that Abel Tasman used in an expedition that led to the discovery of Tasmania and New Zealand, and the sighting of Tonga and Fiji. Tasman's flagship was the fluyt Zeehaen.

Here's a depiction of the Heemskeerk from The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 11, Issue 8 (November 2, 1936), posted online by the New Zealand Electronic Text Collection of Victoria University of Wellington.

And here's Tasman and his voyages:

Abel Tasman's routes from Batavia (Jakarta). Image from Wikipedia

In his later years, Tasman might have enjoyed tracing his travels on a globe, as this part of a family portrait shows:

9. Endeavor 1768-1771

Also known as HMS Endeavour, this ship reached New Zealand 127 years after Abel Tasman's Heemskeerk. The Endeavor is the first known ship to reach the east coast of Australia, when Captain James Cook went ashore at Botany Bay. Aside from the first circumnavigation of New Zealand and reaching east Australia, Captain Cook's expedition was also the first to have contact with the Hawaiian Islands.
Earl of Pembroke, later HMS Endeavour, leaving Whitby Harbour in 1768. By Thomas Luny, dated 1790. (from Wikipedia)

A replica of Endeavor was made in Australia 1988 and was completed in 1993. From 1996 to 2002, this replica traced Captain Cook's ports of call back to the original Endeavor's home port of Whitby Harbor.

Captain James Cook

Routes of Captain Cook's Three Voyages (from Wikipedia)

10. H.M.S. Beagle 1831-1836

In a way, Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution owes much to the brig-sloop H.M.S. Beagle. The dates above refer to the Beagle's second voyage.
HMS Beagle in the Straits of Magellan, pencil sketch circa 1900 (from Wikipedia)

The voyage of the Beagle (from Wikipedia)

11. Vincennes 1838-1842

The USS Vincennes was the first American warship to circumnavigate the globe. The dates above refer to the Wilkes Expedition to the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands, under Lieutenant Charles Wilkes.
19th century photograph of a painting (based on a sketch by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, USN), depicting USS Vincennes in Disappointment Bay, Antarctica, circa January–February 1840. (from Wikipedia)

Charles Wilkes

Route of the Wilkes Expedition (from the Titian Peale Butterfly and Moth Collection page)
The Smithsonian Institution called the expedition "a tremendous feat of navigation," and is said to have "cemented the nation’s [US's] status as a new world economic leader."

Trace away

There you have it, Replogle's roll-call of ships that have appeared in their globes. Have fun tracing their routes. These are best enjoyed with an antique-finish Replogle globe.

'Antique' here refers to the parchment style antique finish of the oceans but Replogle uses up-to-date and detailed maps.

Speaking of 'detailed', Replogle also manufactures the globe that currently holds the title of "The World's Most Detailed Globe" (at over 20,000 place names) – the 32-inch Replogle Diplomat.

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